Music Business Tips –

Hip-hop is a musical genre characterized by a rhythm accompanied by rap and songs, born among the black and Latin American youth of the Bronx and Harlem in the 1970s.

Hip-hop is today a culture in its own right. The need for quality productions is always growing and it is essential for artists (vocalists, beatmakers, DJs …) to have a sound knowledge in order to promote your achievements.

When we talk about hip-hop, we talk about culture simply because it includes 4 modes of expression: deejaying, rap, graffiti and breakdance.

These disciplines, appeared before hip-hop, will be integrated from the birth of the movement.

It is nevertheless by his musical expression that he is the best known and, as a result, often reduced to this one.

Hip hop is still unknown. This cultural and political movement often seems reduced to a caricature but above all expresses a new language of popular revolt.

A history of hip hop culture
Hip hop remains unrecognized. This cultural and political movement often seems to be reduced to a caricature but above all expresses a new language of popular revolt.

Hip-hop is not just a cultural movement. It is rooted in the Social Revolt of the working class districts. Jeff Chang proposes a social and political history of hip-hop in the book can’t stop Won’t stop.

This musical and artistic trend comes from the Bronx and the popular neighborhoods of New York. These territories are being abandoned by the public authorities. Education, health, social wings are disappearing. The housing is left in a state of disrepair. Youth grow up in unemployment and poverty.

A history of hip hop culture
Hip hop remains unrecognized. This cultural and political movement often seems to be reduced to a caricature but above all expresses a new language of popular revolt.

Hip-hop is not just a cultural movement. It is rooted in the Social Revolt of working class neighbourhoods. Jeff Chang proposes a social and political history of hip-hop in the book can’t stop Won’t stop.

This musical and artistic trend comes from the Bronx and the popular neighborhoods of New York. These territories are being abandoned by the public authorities. Education, health and social welfare are disappearing. The housing is left in a state of disrepair. Youth grow up in unemployment and poverty.

“Boyz-N – the Hood” appears to be a mediocre and often macho rap. Created by Jonathan Jackson, it becomes a true generational myth. In the Soledad Brothers, prisoner George Jackson collected letters written to his brother Jonathan about communism, sex, resistance. Jonathan Jackson tries to escape the death penalty by escaping the courtroom with a gun to the judge’s head. The prisoner is killed. “Boyz-N – the Hood” became the myth of a youth revolted and hunted by the police.

The city of Los Angeles is traversed by significant social inequalities. In 1965, the Watts district rose again. A week of riot allowed the population to regain control of the street in the face of a helpless police. The gang then joined the revolution. Watts then became the mythical quarter of poets and philosophers. Gangs politicize themselves in contact with black activists. Some even wear the black leather jacket in solidarity with the Black Panthers. Mike Davis described the Crips as “a mixture of juvenile subculture and protomafia” and as “the last lifeblood for thousands of young people left behind.”

In the 1980s, violence on the street became more severe. The rap is broadcast through homemade cassettes. “These new blues were a great way to recreate daily life on the eruptive margins of inner-city neighbourhoods and its perilous reversals,” said Chang. Violence, crack, guns, gangs are described by hip-hop music. The gangsta rap is growing Wilder. New artists invent a direct style. “If it were a protest, they would throw away the ideology and go straight to the riot. If it was sex, they would throw the seduction to go straight to sex, ” described Chang. This music is based on theatricality and threat. The power of words must liberate from internalized oppression to become a new black poetry and the coolest rebellion.

In 1992, in Los Angeles, the police beat up a young black man named Rodney King. Riots break out. Blacks and latinos actively participate in this movement. On the other hand, Korean traders are suffering damage. “No justice, no peace” became the slogan chanted by the rioters.

The crackdown is getting tougher. The war on gangs is like a war on youth. The law prohibits the gathering of young people on the street. Black people are heavily repressed and make up the majority of the prison population. The reactionaries also invest the cultural ground and do not cease to denounce the rap that conveys violence and sexually explicit words.

Sister Souljah, a black activist close to Public Enemy, proves to be particularly good at polemic. She defends hip hop culture as a means of disseminating political ideas. “Rap is a vehicle for Black Consciousness mass marketing,” says Souljah. Above all, it unconditionally defends the rioters and trivializes their violence in relation to the daily brutality of the gangs. Bill Clinton then accused him of inciting violence against white people. Ice T is also denounced by the reactionaries. His song “Cop Killer” is seen as an inducement to kill cops.

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Dissemination and recovery

The hip hop generation invents its own journalism. The media describes the rap from the outside. From now on, passionate young people address their readers with their own language, which reflects their anxieties and controversies. The source, an amateur magazine, claims to embody the revolt of an entire generation.”It perfectly illustrated the hip hop attitude – that b-boy attitude, with the overwhelming confidence of the street-goer, the morgue – ridden challenge of a generation, the barely secret joy of owning something that an army of parents, cultural critics from the baby boom, or rock-and-roll journalists couldn’t really understand-and put it into words,” said Chang.

But the magazine also reflects the contradictions of hip-hop, between its commercial potential and its potential activist. The Source doesn’t just want to be “the voice of the rap industry” to become ” the music, culture and Politics magazine hip hop “. He creates the canon of rap magazines with topics like dates and guide to record releases, the best hip hop quotes, fashion pages with mannequins.

The section “Doin’ the Knowledge ” offers a hip hop look at the political issues of the time : crime, the prison system, aids, Islam, electoral politics, the Gulf War. Journalists are always debating what should be in the magazine. “Hip hop journalism made it possible to focus on the Straight Talk of margins, highlight the added value of free speech and all the fun of breaking sugar on people’s backs, define a boom-rap aesthetics, celebrate different forms of beauty and make money at the same time,” notes Chang.

Hip hop gradually became the embodiment of the urban, commercial and trendy lifestyle. Brands like Nike are taking over the hip hop culture to develop their advertising image. Certainly, an underground movement persists, with these independent labels. But the rap is less aimed at the blacks of working-class neighborhoods and more at the White petty bourgeoisie, with a much greater purchasing power. Hip-hop journalism fades behind hip-hop magazines like Vibe. Many rap fans reject this new headline. “For them, Vibe seemed to turn hip hop into a museum piece – cool, but cerebral, clever, but constipated, splendid, but bourgeois,” says Chang.

Young people from all walks of life dress in the same way. But, instead of equality, it is more a negation of the relations of class domination and race. The urban cool “feeds on the alienation that defines race relations in America : it sells to the white youth the fetishization of the black style, and to the black youth its fetishization of the white wealth,” Naomi Klein analyzes.

From the mid-1990s, rap became a commodity. The record industry took control of this music, which became the most profitable. “In the past, there was a creative tension between the two roles of hip hop, a commodity in the media industry and a driving force behind a vast and dynamic network of local undergrounds,” said Chang. But radio imposes a formatting and standardization of music.

The concentration of capital eradicates diversity. Five record companies, one radio and one music channel share the cake of the cultural industry. Independent labels get bought out, evicted or crushed. Political rap became a bland, inoffensive, “conscious rap” for “vegetarian hip hop fans with advanced education, an Ipod and a Northface backpack”, joked Jeff Chang. The conscious rap does not express a political revolt but a market share.

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Hip hop revolt

But the hip hop generation is not that depoliticized and consumerist Mass often decried by its elders. Young people participate more in protests than the Civil Rights generation. But they are abandoning the political spectacle and no longer organizing large media marches in Washington. They prefer direct action at the local level to transform their daily lives. “Vital fighting was taking place at the local level, where hip hop activists were struggling in the streets, neighbourhoods, school boards, town halls, state legislatures, and corporate offices,” said Chang.

Rap, graffiti and breakdance mobilize people on education, urban gentrification or repression.”Young people notice that the only things that can no longer be sold, recovered or marked are mobilization and political dissent,” says uski Winsatt.

The book by Jeff Chang proposes a dive into the history of hip hop. He stresses the popular and anti-establishment origins of this movement. Unlike the chatter of a Cachin Olive Tree or the revisionist delirium of Mathias Cardet, this book shows not only the breath of revolt but also the commercial recovery of the last great movement of counter-culture.

The comparison between hip hop and civil rights generation is relevant. The youth of the 1980s no longer adopted ideological and openly political language. But hip hop helps to anchor the protest in the daily life of working class neighborhoods. Violence, drugs, police repression, poverty and boredom are the rhythms of rap music. Even if the cruel observation of a violent reality takes precedence over the emancipatory perspectives. But hip hop remains a creative movement that breaks the daily routine. It is a new form of expression that invents its new language, away from militancy but in tune with reality.

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